Contactless Characterization of Miniature and Buried Antennas Within Reverberation Chambers

Starting Date and Duration
This offer is for a 4 to 6-month internship that could start anytime between February and April 2021. It may be
extended to a 3-year PhD.
Smart cities rely on the use on wireless sensor networks in order to ensure monitoring activities for a large panel
of applications: structural health, soil composition, air and water quality… Sensors are therefore either in contact
or embedded within a lossy medium such as concrete, soil or water. Such complex environment in the sensor’s
vicinity implies a degradation of the radio performances and in particular a decrease in the antenna radiation
efficiency. The estimation of such efficiency, critical parameter to limit power consumption, is barely possible with
conventional measurement methods in the case of buried and miniature antennas. Indeed, conventional
measurement approaches necessitate to connect the antenna under test to an analyzer whereas the presence of
the cables in the antenna reactive near-field zone disturbs the radiation and impedance properties [1]. This
perturbation can be considered as negligeable for large antennas but not for small ones. In that context,
innovative efficiency measurement methods are required to overcome current limitations of conventional
Internship Topic
Reverberation chambers (RCs) have become a reliable alternative to anechoic chambers to perform antenna
radiation pattern [2] and efficiency measurement [3]. In particular, preliminary results established at the ESYCOM
laboratory in 2021 [4], showed the proof-of-concept of a contactless measurement setup dedicated to antenna
radiation efficiency estimation. During this internship, the particular case of low efficiency antenna will be
analyzed, with a special focus on the sensitivity enhancement of the measurement setup while keeping the
measurement time reasonable. The influence of the RC properties on the radiation efficiency estimation will also
be evaluated, especially regarding its stirring capabilities. The specific tasks will include 1) State-of-the-art review,
2) RF measurement within RCs and 3) Data post-processing using Matlab.
Applicant Profile
The targeted student profile is the following:
 Enroll in last year of Master degree (or equivalent) in electrical engineering or physics;
 Strong background in electromagnetics and antennas (ideally in statistics as well);
 Interest for high frequency measurement, autonomous and highly motivated;
 Speak French and/or English;
 Willing to pursue with a PhD.

Elodie Richalot, Full Prof., UGE:
François Sarrazin, Ass. Prof., UGE:
The application file should include CV, statement of purpose, recommendation letters and all academic transcripts
and may be addressed by email to both contacts. Application deadline: March 15th

[1] T. Fukasawa, N. Yoneda and H. Miyashita, Investigation on Current Reduction Effects of Baluns for Measurement of a
Small Antenna, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 4323-4329, July 2019, doi:
[2] A. Reis, F. Sarrazin, P. Besnier, P. Pouliguen and E. Richalot, Contactless Antenna Gain Pattern Estimation From
Backscattering Coefficient Measurement Performed Within Reverberation Chambers, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.,
doi: 10.1109/TAP.2021.3111184. open access
[3] A. Hubrechsen et al., The Effect of Noise on Reverberation-Chamber Measurements of Antenna Efficiency, IEEE Trans.
Antennas Propag., vol. 69, no. 12, pp. 8744-8752, Dec. 2021, doi: 10.1109/TAP.2021.3083822.
[4] W. Krouka, F. Sarrazin, J. de Rosny, A. Labdouni and E. Richalot, Antenna Radiation Efficiency Estimation From
Backscattering Measurement Performed Within Reverberation Chambers, IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., doi:
Université Gustave Eiffel • Campus de Marne-la-Vallée
5, Boulevard Descartes • Champs-sur-Marne • 77454 Marne-La-Vallée CEDEX 2
10.1109/TEMC.2021.3129912. open access

Investigation of Higher Harmonics Scattering from Perovskite Surface using Nonlinear Bond Model

Perovskite is a strong candidate of future solar cell energy generation as well as for next
generation of photodetectors. The performance of perovskite based photodevices depends
among others on understanding their molecular structure at the nanoscale. Nonlinear optics can
be applied to study the Perovskite molecular orientation at this level with the help of rotational
anisotropy spectroscopical (RAS) measurement.
This work focuses on developing a nonlinear bond model to investigate higher harmonic
generation such as second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG)
from perovskite surface using a novel and state of the art nonlinear hyperpolarizability bond
model. Previous research using the nonlinear bond model were very successful in investigating
surface structural properties in semiconductor structures such as silicon in 2014 [1], zincblende
in 2016 [2], and wurtzite semiconductors in 2019 [3].
Very recently we have also studied the nonlinear tensor responsible for SHG in perovskite
structures [4]. This work was performed by intense collaboration with Dr H. Hardhienata from
department of physics of Bogor University Indonesia which need a high self-management skill
(to be rigorous, organised, etc.).
Main missions
The focus of this research is to develop further the nonlinear bond model (see Fig. 1) to account
for different phases of perovskite. At the moment the model only accounts for SHG of the
tetragonal perovskite structure [4] but it is well known that perovskite structures can undergo
phase transition at different temperatures. Therefore, the aim is to determine the bond vector
orientation for the other Perovskite phases as well as explore the possibility for investigation of
third harmonic generation (THG) from within the Perovskite bulk. If successful, the results will
be reported in a reputable scientific peer review journal.

Expected profile:
– Basic Solid-state physics
– Basic on optics (nonlinear optics is a plus)
– Wolfram Mathematica Programming (can be learned afterwards)
– Matlab or C/C++ (optional)
– Phyton (optional)
Location :
Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers
292 rue Saint-Martin – Paris 75003
Duration :
The duration of this master internship is 5 months. Possible to be reduced to 4 months or
extended to 6 months.
Salim FACI : (maître de conférences ESYCOM)

References :
1. Adalberto Alejo-Molina, Hendradi Hardhienata, Kurt Hingerl: Simplified Bond Hyperpolarizability
Model of Second Harmonic Generation, Group Theory and Neumann’s Principle. Journal of the
Optical Society of America B 31 (2014)
2. Hendradi Hardhienata, Adalberto Alejo-Molina, Cornelia Reitböck, Andrii Prylepa, David Stifter,
Kurt Hingerl: Bulk dipolar contribution to second-harmonic generation in zincblende. Journal of the
Optical Society of America B; 33(195):201(2019)
3. Hendradi Hardhienata, Ignu Priyadi, Husin Alatas, M. Danang Birowosuto, and Phillipe Coquet.
Bond Model of SHG in ZnO(0001) using Twin Boundaries. , J. Opt. Soc. Am. B., 36, 4:1127 (2019)
4. Hendradi Hardhienata, Salim Faci, Adalberto Alejo-Molina, Mohammad R. Priatama, Husin Alatas,
and Muhammad D. Birowosuto « Quo Vadis Nonlinear Optics? An Alternative and Simple Approach
to Third Rank Tensors in Semiconductors » Symmetry 14, no. 1: 127, 2022.